for its president, Francis Gueffard, “indigenous peoples at the moment are a part of the dialog”

The Pageant of the Americas, which takes place in Vincennes (Val-de-Marne) from 22 to 25 September 2022, has chosen this yr as its theme “Voices of America”, and amongst these voices desires to listen to people who have lengthy been ignored by the so-called peoples “first “. On this event, the pageant welcomes a big delegation of writers from indigenous communities in Canada and the USA.

Francis Geffard, Founding President of Pageant America and Director of the Terre d’Amérique Assortment at Albin Michel, explains to franceinfo Tradition the good significance of those voices in up to date American literature and the way these voices can open up an area for thrilling reflection. on main points that cross our current.

Franceinfo Tradition: Why is the give attention to indigenous authors this yr?

Francis Geffard: This query has at all times been a pink thread on the pageant. This twentieth version of America takes place only a few days earlier than the 530th anniversary of the invention of America, 1492/2022. In 2002 we determined to carry collectively writers from the Americas. This yr we determined to do one thing across the voices of America. The author’s voice is used for a lot of issues to say, but in addition to sign one’s presence, combat and protest. It’s on this essential theme that the voice of Aboriginal authors resounds. These are individuals who have been silent for a really very long time, each victims of colonization and victims of acculturation. Their voices have solely been heard for a number of years. And these voices resonate with many subjects associated to environmental safety, world warming, in addition to all points associated to nature, identification and tradition. Many of the pageant will probably be devoted to those problems with ecology and the setting. We dwell in a time the place we ask ourselves quite a lot of questions on “the place are we going.” It is fairly simple to see that the issues we’re going through are vital, and that we do not actually understand how we’ll get out of them. In fact, all this will probably be mentioned in Vincennes in the course of the pageant, and these so-called “first” peoples actually have one thing to say.

“These peoples will not be the peoples of the previous. These are the peoples of at this time, and that is the place we meet one another, as a result of all of the questions they increase concern us equally”

Francis Geffard

on Franceinfo Tradition

We invited writers, in addition to native journalists, tribal representatives, environmental activists, individuals who advocate for the observance of treaties and in opposition to the exploitation of the pure sources of Indian reserves.

Is there any specificity of this literature?

I feel simply as there are a thousand methods to be French, there are simply as some ways to be native. Subsequently, similar to the truth that you might be French, you inherit a standard previous, a standard tradition. What may be stated is that the traditional world sounds of their works. It’s certainly the severity of the previous, in addition to the severity of the trauma, which is extraordinarily related. Additionally, for my part, the angle to time is totally totally different. In lots of works we discover a round dimension of time, which isn’t as clearly outlined as in Westerners, time is extra versatile. And that is felt within the development of novels, and there’s no break, so to talk, there’s some sort of linearity of time. It’s also the literature of oral speech, which performs a really, essential function.

“The primary peoples weren’t peoples of writing, however that they had tales, tales, songs, prayers, and so on. And all that is mirrored within the works at this time.”

Francis Geffard

on Franceinfo Tradition

What else may be famous is a particular angle in the direction of the residing. In lots of of those works we are going to discover an angle to what lives that’s radically totally different from the European one. For us, nature is one thing separate, however for the natives, man is one with nature. The idea of nature is, so to talk, alien to them. And even at this time, even when acculturation has vastly diminished the identification of those cultures, it’s no much less true that the angle to the panorama, to the mountain, to the river, to animals, to vegetation, is radically totally different from ours.

Why did it take so lengthy for this Native American literature to return out of the shadows?

It took a while for this literature to achieve acceptance in fashionable American literature. These authors have change into victims of the picture caught to them. Not solely have been Indians fully colonized, however all through historical past, Westerners have thought extra about taking than giving, and thus additionally misplaced actual alternatives to fulfill different individuals and share frequent issues.

“The picture of the Indians has fully modified, it has change into an integral a part of the American collective unconscious.”

Francis Geffard

on Franceinfo Tradition

Lastly, what was in America, and never elsewhere, have been the Indians, who have been typically seen as savages, and typically as a number of uncommon creatures, such because the noble savage beloved of Rousseau. Both subhuman or superhuman. Typically, that is the picture of an Indian in a Western. So these are individuals who have been victims each in actuality and in creativeness. True, all of a sudden, for a very long time, we restricted them to this considerably nostalgic approach, in sepia tones, and, ultimately, fully missed the assembly, as a result of the Indian was chained to this space of ​​u200bu200bchildhood or late adolescence. Whereas these cultures convey the questions which can be wanted. The so-called “first” peoples are bearers of points that aren’t problems with the previous, however extremely up to date points, identification, tradition, relations with the setting, solidarity between generations. They ask us quite a lot of questions.

Which indigenous authors would you advocate to incorporate on this literature?

There are two native authors who’ve performed a particular function within the historical past of American literature. Certainly one of them is N. Scott Momadei. He’s a Kiowa Indian from Oklahoma, he’s the primary Indian to win a Pulitzer Prize for a novel referred to as home from daybreak which was republished in 2020 in a brand new translation (Albin Michel, ed.). He’s a poet-essayist, was a college professor, a specialist in Elizabethan poetry.

American writer Scott Momadei, in 2001 in Saint-Malo (ULF ANDERSEN / ULF ANDERSEN)

And one other indigenous creator who, fifty years after N. Scott Momadei, gained the Pulitzer Prize for his ebook The one who seems to be (Albin Michel, 2021) — Louise Erdrich is an Ojibwa Indian from the Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota. In these two writers, we discover all of the options of this literature: echoes of the previous, oral, a way of the sacred, which is essential, an angle to the world, an angle to the residing, an angle to house, to the panorama.


Louise Erdrich produced a vital work, she wrote about twenty novels, poems, quick tales and is taken into account at this time one of many largest American writers, like N. Scott Momaday, however this recognition didn’t come by itself.

“This Indian query shouldn’t be simple to know, it’s painful, it isn’t a difficulty marked with the stamp of lightness, however, from my perspective, it’s completely capital.”

Francis Geffard

on Franceinfo Tradition

The truth that greater than half a century has elapsed between these two Pulitzer Prizes awarded to Aboriginal authors raises questions. However that could be as a result of they characterize unique sin. As Faulkner stated, “the previous shouldn’t be lifeless”, which could be very Indian, as a result of for Indians the previous exists in addition to the current, and Faulkner stated that if we wish to perceive America, we have to be within the Indian query: what’s he speaking about lots? thought, one thing that additionally lived for a really very long time with Jim Harrison, some of the vital American writers for French readers.

What can this Indian literature give us Westerners?

I’d be tempted to say that for a very long time Europeans and North People thought that they had all of the solutions and have been primarily involved with growth and capitalism, which consisted of plundering different continents, amongst different issues. At this time we see the place this logic has led us. The destruction of those peoples all through the world goes hand in hand with the destruction of the world of labor, with a disregard for the lives of a few of us. We clearly see that we’re coming to the tip of this materialistic, profit-based client logic. We had a relationship with the world that obeyed solely the legislation of revenue, and at this time I’d be tempted to say, considerably trivially, that we’re being billed, whereas all these indigenous peoples had growth paths that have been very totally different from this logic. So I feel now these indigenous persons are a part of the dialog. And it is thrilling.

How does Indian literature make clear America?

I used to be considered one of his essential smugglers of this literature. On the time I began engaged on this subject, these authors have been excluded as a result of they weren’t thought of worthy of curiosity for all the explanations I discussed above. Whereas

I see an important affinity between African American literature and Indigenous literature. However watch out, simply since you are Indian doesn’t essentially imply you’re a nice author. This is applicable to any inhabitants. Subsequently, when you might have the expertise of an artist and you’ve got a specific imaginative and prescient, in fact, that’s the place you mirror one thing particular in your group from there. Essentially the most fascinating factor about Toni Morrison shouldn’t be that she’s black, however that she was a author, and that is as a result of she one way or the other acquired there, that it make clear what the African American expertise represented in time and all the things. issues related to slavery. .

“I’ve been in touch with this world for over forty years. He didn’t make me an Indian, however he radically modified my mental imaginative and prescient of historical past, tradition, angle in the direction of others.

Francis Geffard

on Franceinfo Tradition

All this isn’t very handy, as a result of there’s a sort of mise en abyme, however we’re additionally the heirs of this, and I feel that we at the moment are confronted with extra questions than solutions. The Indian world is the inheritor to a historical past of destruction, lies, duplicity, I imagine there are few individuals within the historical past of mankind who’ve been so mistreated. When you look a bit of bit at what American historical past has been like, it is unbelievable. However America isn’t as fascinating as its shortcomings, and God is aware of if there are any, and maybe it’s this concept of ​​the shortcomings of America, and in addition to, the shortcomings of the Western world, that we wish to emphasize on the pageant. this yr, and expertise otherness.

America Pageant, Vincennes from 22 to 30 September 2022

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